Colonoscopy (Gastroenterology)
Colonoscopy enables visual inspection of the entire large bowel from the distal rectum to the cecum. The procedure is a safe and effective means of evaluating the large bowel. Compared with other imaging modalities, colonoscopy is especially useful in detecting small lesions such as adenomas; however, the main advantage of colonoscopy is that it allows for intervention, since biopsies can be taken and polyps removed.
Colon, Polyposis Syndromes (Gastroenterology)
A gastrointestinal polyp is defined as a mass of the mucosal surface protruding into the lumen of the bowel. Polyps can be neoplastic, nonneoplastic, or submucosal. Gastrointestinal polyposis is characterized by multiple polyps within the gastrointestinal tract. Polyposis syndromes may be classified as familial inherited (autosomal dominant) or nonfamilial.
Colon Cancer, Adenocarcinoma (Gastroenterology)
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women in the United States. Risk factors include age, a diet rich in fat and cholesterol, inflammatory bowel disease (especially ulcerative colitis), and genetic predisposition, including hereditary polyposis and nonpolyposis syndromes. If detected early, colorectal cancer is curable by surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy can prolong survival in disease that has reached the lymph nodes. Radiotherapy is used in cases of rectal cancer to reduce the risk of local recurrence.
Intestinal Polypoid Adenomas (Gastroenterology)
The term intestinal polyp is used to describe any projection arising from flat mucosa into the intestinal lumen. Polyps can be broadly classified as neoplastic and nonneoplastic. Neoplastic polyps can be further classified as either adenomatous (premalignant) or malignant. Approximately 95% of all colorectal carcinomas are believed to arise from adenomas, a finding that underscores the importance of treatment and surveillance of adenomas of the gastrointestinal tract.
Villous Adenoma
Adenomatous polyps are, by definition, neoplastic. Although benign, they are the direct precursors of adenocarcinomas and follow a predictable cancerous temporal course unless interrupted by treatment. They can be either pedunculated or sessile. Adenomas are divided into 3 subtypes based on histologic criteria, (1) tubular, (2) tubulovillous, and (3) villous.

NuLYTELY® and GoLYTELY® are indicated for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy. Use is contraindicated in patients with gastrointestinal obstruction, gastric retention, bowel perforation, toxic colitis, toxic megacolon or ileus and patients known to be hypersensitive to any of the components. Use with caution in patients with severe ulcerative colitis. Nausea, abdominal fullness and bloating are the most common adverse reactions. Abdominal cramps, vomiting and anal irritation occur less frequently. Isolated cases of urticaria, rhinorrhea, dermatitis, and (rarely) anaphylactic reaction have been reported which may represent allergic reactions.

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